North America:: Canada
Canada is located in Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US.
A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.
Coins of the Canadian dollar
Canadian coinage is the coinage of Canada, produced by the Royal Canadian Mint and denominated in Canadian dollars ($) and the subunit of dollars, cents (¢).
There are six denominations of Canadian circulation coinage in production: 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, $1, and $2. Officially they are each named according to their value (e.g. "ten cent piece"), but in practice the three smallest denominations are never called by those names. They are invariably known as the nickel, dime, and quarter respectively; and the two largest coins are very often called the loonie and the toonie respectively. The production of the Canadian one cent piece (known as the penny) was discontinued in 2012, as inflation had reduced its value significantly below the cost of production.
The 50¢ piece, though in circulation, is far less circulated than the other coins. Between the years 2000 and 2007 the Royal Canadian Mint struck 15,950,000 50¢ pieces; in comparison, during the same period 2,262,165,000 quarters were released (approximately 142 times as many). This coin is sometimes called a half dollar, but the name 50¢ piece is also used.
Canadian Dollar (C$ or CAD)
Canadian bills or bank notes are commonly available in $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100 dollar denominations. The $1 and $2 bills have been replaced with coins (the loonie and the toonie).
Canadian coins include the loonie, toonie, 25¢ quarter, 10¢ dime, 5¢ nickel and 1¢ penny, although production of the penny has been stopped, so hang on to one or two as a keepsake. As of 2014, bills are rounded off to the nearest nickel to take pennies out of circulation.